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Multiple kinase inhibitors are available for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is largely unknown whether regorafenib or lenvatinib modulates innate immunity including Toll-like receptor (TLR)-signaling pathways in HCC. We performed real-time RT-PCR to investigate 84 TLR-associated gene expression levels and compared these gene expression levels in each hepatoma cells treated with or without regorafenib or lenvatinib. In response to regorafenib, nine and 10 genes were upregulated in Huh7 and HepG2 cells, respectively, and only C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 was upregulated in both cell lines. A total of 14 and 12 genes were downregulated in Huh7 and HepG2 cells, respectively, and two genes (Fos proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit, and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 N) were downregulated in both cell lines. In response to lenvatinib, four and 16 genes were upregulated in Huh7 and HepG2 cells, respectively, and two genes (interleukin 1 alpha and TLR4) were upregulated in both cells. Six and one genes were downregulated in Huh7 and HepG2, respectively, and no genes were downregulated in both cell lines. In summary, regorafenib and lenvatinib affect TLR signaling pathways in human hepatoma cell lines. Modulation of TLR signaling pathway may improve the treatment of HCC patients with refractory disease.
PMID: 32397371 [PubMed - in process]