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Prospective study of canine leptospirosis in shelter and stray dog populations: Identification of chronic carriers and different Leptospira species infecting dogs.

著者 Miotto BA , Guilloux AGA , Tozzi BF , Moreno LZ , da Hora AS , Dias RA , Heinemann MB , Moreno AM , Filho AFS , Lilenbaum W , Hagiwara MK
PLoS One.2018 ; 13(7):e0200384.
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Dogs are highly susceptible to the leptospiral infection, notably stray and sheltered dogs. Unsanitary conditions often observed in dog shelters may predispose the introduction and spread of leptospires among sheltered populations, potentially increasing the chances for the inadvertent adoption of asymptomatically infected animals. The present work describes a longitudinal study using a multidisciplinary approach for the identification of chronically infected dogs and the characterization of potentially pathogenic strains circulating among stray and sheltered dog populations in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 123 dogs from three populations were included. The initial evaluation consisted of blood and urine quantitative PCR testing (qPCR), the detection of specific antibodies by microscopic agglutination test (MAT), physical examination and hematological and serum biochemistry analyses. The qPCR-positive dogs were prospectively examined, and reevaluations also included culture from urine samples. Positive qPCR samples were subjected to 16S rRNA and secY gene phylogenetic analysis. The recovered strains were characterized by Multilocus Sequence Typing, polyclonal serogroup identification and virulence determination. Leptospiruria was detected in all populations studied (13/123), and phylogenetic analysis revealed that 10 dogs had L. interrogans infection. Three dogs (3/13) had L. santarosai infection. The secY phylogenetic analysis revealed that the L. santarosai sequences clustered separately from those obtained from other hosts. Ten leptospiruric dogs were reevaluated, and three dogs presented persistent leptospiruria, allowing culturing from two dogs. The strains were characterized as L. interrogans serogroup Canicola (virulent) and L. santarosai serogroup Sejroe (not virulent). Serum samples were retested by MAT using the DU92 and DU114 strains as antigens, and no increased seroreactivity was detected. Asymptomatic L. santarosai infection was observed in all populations studied, suggesting a possible role of dogs in the chain of transmission of this leptospiral species. The results suggest a genetic distinction between lineages of Brazilian L. santarosai maintained by dogs and other animal hosts. Our findings revealed that dogs could act as maintenance hosts for distinct pathogenic Leptospira, highlighting also that asymptomatically infected dogs can be inadvertently admitted and adopted in dog shelters, potentially increasing the risks of zoonotic transmission.
PMID: 29995963 [PubMed - in process]
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