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Treatment of hepatic hydrothorax (HH) generally involves sodium restriction, diuretics, and serial thoracentesis. In more advanced cases, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and liver transplantation may be required. In the past, indwelling tube drainage has been avoided due to concerns about high complication rates and overall poor outcomes. Recently, indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) have been proposed as a novel treatment option for HH.
PMID: 29990479 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]