The aim of this study was to evaluate the adverse drug reaction (ADR) incidence rate and new signals thereof for classic compared with new anticoagulants in real-life ambulatory settings. The authors performed an observational cross-sectional study in two cohorts of surveyed patients treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs; acenocoumarol or warfarin) or nonvitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs; apixaban, edoxaban, rivaroxaban, dabigatran etexilate). Descriptive, clinical, and ADRs data were reported and analyzed through a bivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR]) to compare the ADRs incidence rate and an adaptation of Bayesian methodology (false discovery rate [FDR] < 0.05) to detect new signals. A total of 334 patients were surveyed-average international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.6-and 45.4% taking new anticoagulants. Note that 835 ADRs were reported; 2.5 per patient (2.8 in the VKA cohort, 2.1 in the NOAC cohort). The authors obtained higher risk of epistaxis (OR, 2.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-4.74) and hematoma (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.39-4.25) with VKAs and lower risk of global bleeding symptoms with NOACs (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.28-0.71). After standardizing the data, a significant risk of diarrhea with VKAs was observed (OR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.09-10.41). They also detected an intense positive signal regarding the use of VKAs and osteoporosis (FDR < 0.001), specifically acenocoumarol (FDR < 0.002). NOACs presented lower risk of bleeding, especially dabigatran (FDR < 0.031), and of dermatological pathologies with apixaban being the safest (FDR = 0.050). The lower risk of global bleeding and a potential protective effect against osteoporosis in patients treated with NOACs postulate them as safer than VKAs.
PMID: 29864777 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]