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Historically, the diagnosis and classification of acute leukemia involved morphologic review of blasts in the peripheral blood and bone marrow smears and cytochemical staining. Cytochemical stains, which are enzymatic colorimetric reactions that occur in the cells of interest, were necessary to assign and confirm myeloid and lymphoid lineage. In the current WHO 2008 Classification of leukemia, immunophenotyping and cytogenetic analysis have largely replaced cytochemical staining in the characterization of acute leukemias. Nonetheless, cytochemical testing remains a useful adjunct assay for the proper classification of acute leukemia in a number of diagnostic settings. This chapter reviews the principles of the most common cytochemical stains, their procedures and guides to interpretation, and results in acute myeloid leukemia.
PMID: 28735478 [PubMed - in process]
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