In this study, the influence of the addition of rare earth oxides on the phase composition and density of KNN piezoelectric ceramics was investigated. The initial powders of NaCO and KCO were dried at 150 °C for 2 h. Then, a powder mixture for synthesis was prepared by adding a stoichiometric amount of NbO and 5 and 10 wt % overabundance of NaCO. All powders were mixed by ball-milling for 24 h and synthesized at 950 °C. The phase composition of the reaction bed was checked by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD). It had an appearance of tetragonal and monoclinic KNaNbO (KNN) phases. Then, 1 and 2 wt % of ErO and YbO, were added to the mixture. Green samples of 25 mm diameter and 3 mm thickness were prepared and sintered by hot pressing at 1000 °C for 2 h under 25 MPa pressure. The final samples were investigated via scanning electron microscopy (SEM)-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), XRD, Rietveld, and ultrasonic methods. Phase analysis showed tetragonal and orthorhombic KNN phases, and a contamination of (KCO·1.5HO) was present. The obtained KNN polycrystals had a relative density above 95%. Texturing of the material was confirmed as a result of hot pressing.
PMID: 31842301 [PubMed]