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Although rice straw (RS), biochar (BI) and calcite (CC) have proved to be effective immobilizing agents in acidic contaminated soil, we lack up-to-date scientific data regarding nickel (Ni) fractionation in soil and removal capacity in water. Therefore, an incubation study was undertaken to investigate the efficacy of RS, BI and CC with three application rates (0, 1 and 2%) of RS, BI and CC on the immobilization of Ni in polluted soil. Various extraction techniques were carried out: sequential extraction procedure, the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), extraction with CaCl and the toxicity characteristics leaching procedure (TCLP) techniques. Additionally, Ni sorption behavior was determined using the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Results showed that adding all amendments into Ni contaminated acidic soil, enhanced soil pH, reduced the exchangeable fraction of Ni by 48%-55%, 59%-71% and 58%-66.3%, when RS, BI and CC were applied at 1% and 2% rates, respectively. According to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm results, the maximum sorption capacity was recorded using 2747 mg kg in 2% CC amended soil. However, biochar exhibited the maximum Ni sorption capacity (13348 mg kg), due to its porous structure, larger surface area, and having more functional groups. Furthermore, the results of FTIR, SEM and zeta potential techniques confirmed that the immobilization and biochar's capacity to remove Ni were more effective when compared to other immobilizing agents.
PMID: 31812043 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]