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Glucocerebrosidase () mutations are the most important genetic risk factor for the development of Parkinson disease (PD). encodes the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Loss-of-GCase activity in cellular models has implicated lysosomal and mitochondrial dysfunction in PD disease pathogenesis, although the exact mechanisms remain unclear. We hypothesize that mutations impair mitochondria quality control in a neurosphere model.We have characterized mitochondrial content, mitochondrial function and macroautophagy flux in 3D-neurosphere-model derived from neural crest stem cells containing heterozygous and homozygous mutations, under carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl-hydrazine (CCCP)- induced mitophagy.Our findings on mitochondrial markers and ATP levels indicate that mitochondrial accumulation occurs in mutant neurospheres under basal conditions, and clearance of depolarised mitochondria is impaired following CCCP-treatment. A significant increase in TFEB-mRNA levels, the master regulator of lysosomal and autophagy genes, may explain an unchanged macroautophagy flux in neurospheres. PGC1α-mRNA levels were also significantly increased following CCCP-treatment in heterozygote, but not homozygote neurospheres, and might contribute to the increased mitochondrial content seen in cells with this genotype, probably as a compensatory mechanism that is absent in homozygous lines.Mitochondrial impairment occurs early in the development of GCase-deficient neurons. Furthermore, impaired turnover of depolarised mitochondria is associated with early mitochondrial dysfunction.In summary, the presence of mutation may be associated with higher levels of mitochondrial content in homozygous lines and lower clearance of damaged mitochondria in our neurosphere model.
PMID: 31751314 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
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