Pediatric small round cell tumors (PSRCTs) constitute a large proportion of childhood malignancies with overlapping diagnostic and clinical features but radically different therapies. Here, we report a case of 16-year-old male child presenting with diffuse abdominal and mediastinal mass, axillary lymphadenopathy, and pleural effusion. Bone marrow aspirate showed near total replacement by small round malignant cells. The bone marrow biopsy showed interstitial infiltration by malignant cells, which were CD45- CD3- CD20- MIC2+ FLI1+ and diagnosis of Ewing's sarcoma was established. In contrast, flowcytometric immunophenotyping of the bone marrow aspirate showed CD45- cells, which were CD19+ cytCD79a+ CD10+ CD81+ CD38+ HLA-DR+ CD22+ CD20- consistent with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The extended immunostaining panel on bone marrow biopsy also showed positivity for cytCD79a, CD10, CD19, and BCL-2, whereas fluorescent in-situ hybridization for EWSR1 gene rearrangement was negative. Thus, a final diagnosis of CD45- FLI1+ MIC2+ B-ALL was established. Rare cases of CD45- B-ALL with immunoreactivity for MIC2 and Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (FLI1) have posed a diagnostic challenge for PSRCTs in the recent past. This case report highlights the role of multimodality approach in establishing a correct diagnosis in CD45- PSRCTs to ensure definitive therapy and better clinical outcome.
PMID: 31611454 [PubMed - in process]