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This review summarizes important studies regarding Helicobacter pylori therapy published from May 2018 to May 2019. The main themes that emerge involve studies assessing the efficacy of bismuth-based regimens. While in recent years the efficacy of bismuth-based quadruple therapy as a second-line therapy has been clearly established, there is now substantial evidence that it is the best performing first-line therapy. Antibiotic resistance was again intensely studied this year, and a clear and dramatic increase in resistance is noted for clarithromycin and levofloxacin; most notably, it may not be possible to support these therapies in most regions of the world much longer without testing. The utility of vonoprazan as an alternative to proton-pump inhibitor therapy, especially in resistant and difficult to treat groups, has also been considered in greater detail this year, as well as means of supporting and enhancing adherence to therapy. Several studies showed that the diversity of gut microbiota was significantly altered shortly after H pylori eradication. However, the diversity was restored to pre-treatment state after 2 months in patients treated with triple therapy. More studies are warranted to assess the long-term changes of gut microbiota after H pylori eradication.
PMID: 31486235 [PubMed - in process]