Total Synthesis of (+)-Granatumine A and Related Bislactone Limonoid Alkaloids via a Pyran to Pyridine Interconversion.

Schuppe AW , Zhao Y , Liu Y , Newhouse TR
Journal of the American Chemical Society
We report the first total synthesis of (+)-granatumine A, a limonoid alkaloid with PTP1B inhibitory activity, in ten steps. Over the course of this study, two key methodological advances were made: a cost-effective procedure for ketone α,β-dehydrogenation using allyl-Pd catalysis, and a Pd-catalyzed protocol to convert epoxyketones to 1,3-diketones. The central tetrasubstituted pyridine is formed by a convergent Knoevenagel condensation and carbonyl-selective electrocyclization cascade, which was followed by a direct transformation of a 2H-pyran to a pyridine. These studies have led to the structural revision of two members of this family.

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