Full Text Sources
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are double-stranded DNA viruses causative in a host of human diseases, including several cancers. Following infection, two viral proteins, E1 and E2, activate viral replication in association with cellular factors and stimulate the DNA damage response (DDR) during the replication process. E1-E2 uses homologous recombination (HR) to facilitate DNA replication, but an understanding of host factors involved in this process remains incomplete. Previously, we demonstrated that the class III deacetylase SIRT1, which can regulate HR, is recruited to E1-E2-replicating DNA and regulates the level of replication. Here, we demonstrate that SIRT1 promotes the fidelity of E1-E2 replication and that the absence of SIRT1 results in reduced recruitment of the DNA repair protein Werner helicase (WRN) to E1-E2-replicating DNA. CRISPR/Cas9 editing demonstrates that WRN, like SIRT1, regulates the quantity and fidelity of E1-E2 replication. This is the first report of WRN regulation of E1-E2 DNA replication, or a role for WRN in the HPV life cycle. In the absence of SIRT1 there is an increased acetylation and stability of WRN, but a reduced ability to interact with E1-E2-replicating DNA. We present a model in which E1-E2 replication turns on the DDR, stimulating SIRT1 deacetylation of WRN. This deacetylation promotes WRN interaction with E1-E2-replicating DNA to control the quantity and fidelity of replication. As well as offering a crucial insight into HPV replication control, this system offers a unique model for investigating the link between SIRT1 and WRN in controlling replication in mammalian cells. HPV16 is the major viral human carcinogen responsible for between 3 and 4% of all cancers worldwide. Following infection, this virus activates the DNA damage response (DDR) to promote its life cycle and recruits DDR proteins to its replicating DNA in order to facilitate homologous recombination during replication. This promotes the production of viable viral progeny. Our understanding of how HPV16 replication interacts with the DDR remains incomplete. Here, we demonstrate that the cellular deacetylase SIRT1, which is a part of the E1-E2 replication complex, regulates recruitment of the DNA repair protein WRN to the replicating DNA. We demonstrate that WRN regulates the level and fidelity of E1-E2 replication. Overall, the results suggest a mechanism by which SIRT1 deacetylation of WRN promotes its interaction with E1-E2-replicating DNA to control the levels and fidelity of that replication.
PMID: 30890607 [PubMed - in process]