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Due to their complex chemical and physical properties, the effects and mechanisms of action of natural sources of dietary fiber on the intestine are unclear. Pigs are commonly fed high-fiber diets to reduce production costs and non-starch polysaccharide (NSP)-degrading enzymes have been used to increase fiber digestibility. We evaluated the expression of mucin 2 (MUC2), presence of goblet cells, and ileal immune profile of pigs housed individually for 28 days and fed either a low fiber diet based on corn-soybean meal (CSB, n = 9), or two high fiber diets formulated adding 40% corn distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS, n = 9) or 30% wheat middlings (WM, n = 9) to CSB-based diet. Pigs were also fed those diets supplemented with a NSP enzymes mix (E) of xylanase, β-glucanase, mannanase, and galactosidase (n = 8, 10, and 9 for CSB+E, DDGS+E and WM+E, respectively). Feeding DDGS and WM diets increased ileal MUC2 expression compared with CSB diet, and this effect was reversed by the addition of enzymes. There were no differences in abundance of goblet cells among treatments. In general, enzyme supplementation increased gene expression and concentrations of IL-1β, and reduced the concentrations of IL-4, IL-17A and IL-11. The effects of diet-induced cytokines on modulating intestinal MUC2 were assessed in vitro by treating mouse and swine enteroids with 1 ng/ml of IL-4 and IL-1β. In accordance with previous studies, treatment with Il-4 induced Muc2 and expansion of goblet cells in mouse enteroids. However, swine enteroids did not change MUC2 expression or number of goblet cells when treated with IL-4 or IL-1β. Our results suggest that mucin and immune profile are regulated by diet in the swine intestine, but by mechanisms different to mouse, emphasizing the need for using appropriate models to study responses to dietary fiber in swine.
PMID: 30408134 [PubMed - in process]