Effective Sequential Combined Chemotherapy with Trifluridine/Tipiracil and Regorafenib in Human Colorectal Cancer Cells.

Matsuoka K , Nakagawa F , Tanaka N , Okabe H , Matsuo K , Takechi T
International journal of molecular sciences
Salvage chemotherapy for refractory metastatic colorectal cancer using trifluridine/tipiracil (FTD/TPI) and regorafenib has shown survival benefits. We evaluated the antitumor effects of FTD or FTD/TPI combined with regorafenib in vitro and in vivo. SW620, HCT 116, and HT-29 human colorectal cancer cell lines were treated with FTD and regorafenib simultaneously and sequentially. Cell death, incorporation of FTD into DNA, and molecules related to FTD and regorafenib-associated cell death were investigated. The antitumor effects of FTD combined with regorafenib in SW620 and COLO205 xenografts were also evaluated. Cell death was greater after sequential treatment with FTD followed by regorafenib in SW620 cells, but not in HCT 116 and HT-29 cells, than after treatment with FTD alone, which was attributable to thymidylate synthase reduction with the induction of apoptosis. In contrast, simultaneous and sequential exposure to regorafenib followed by FTD, but not FTD alone, attenuated the cell death effect. Furthermore, combined FTD/TPI treatment followed by regorafenib had greater antitumor activity than either monotherapy in SW620 and COLO205 xenograft models. Treatment results following regorafenib administration subsequent to FTD or FTD/TPI suggest that sequential therapy with FTD/TPI prior to regorafenib may be effective in a clinical setting.

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