Integrative approach on Pharyngodonidae (Nematoda: Oxyuroidea) parasitic in reptiles: Relationship among its genera, importance of their diagnostic features, and new data on Parapharyngodon bainae.
, Luque JL
, Tavares LER
The first integrative approach using sequences of two genes (18S and 28S rRNA) plus morphological and life history traits, was explored in Pharyngodonidae nematodes parasitic in reptiles. Additionally, first genetic characterization of Parapharyngodon bainae and new data on its morphology are given. This approach evaluated the phylogenetic relationships among genera within Pharyngodonidae, as well as the importance of their diagnostic morphological features. Specimens of P. bainae were collected from faecal pellets of the lizard Tropidurus torquatus in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Nematodes were fixed for scanning electron microscopy and molecular procedures. Morphological observations revealed the accurate structures of cephalic end, of cloacal region in males, of vulva and eggs. Phylogenetic reconstructions were based upon four datasets: aligned sequences of the 18S, of the 28S, of both concatenated genes and of combined morphological and molecular datasets. Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood were performed to infer the phylogenies of molecular datasets and maximum parsimony to infer that of all-combined data. Pharyngodonid parasites of reptiles seem to configure two general monophyletic lineages, as previously assertions. Results also showed the monophyly of Spauligodon, Skrjabinodon and Parapharyngodon, as well as the clear separation between the latter and Thelandros. Combination of datasets improved nodal supports. Analysis of the all-combined datasets revealed the importance of vulval position and egg morphology as phylogenetic informative traits. However, characters of male caudal morphology appear as are highly homoplastic, and seem to be product of convergent evolution or multiple losses of ancestral traits. The closely-related Thelandros and Parapharyngodon are kept valid and their diagnosis should be based upon the position of the operculum in eggs (terminal or subterminal, respectively). Some inconsistencies in the scarce molecular and morphological databases were noted. Thus, new genetic data is required for further conclusions and current database must be evaluated with attention.
PMID: 29995964 [PubMed - in process]