Although light microscopy is a powerful tool for the assessment of kidney physiology and pathology, it has traditionally been unable to resolve structures separated by less than the ~250 nm diffraction limit of visible light. Here, we report on the optimization, validation, and application of a recently developed super-resolution fluorescence microscopy method, called expansion microscopy (ExM), for volumetric interrogation of mouse and human kidney tissue with 70-75 nm lateral and ~250 nm axial spatial resolution. Using ExM with a standard confocal microscope, we resolve fine details of structures that have traditionally required visualization by electron microscopy, including podocyte foot processes, the glomerular basement membrane, and the cytoskeleton. This inexpensive and accessible approach to volumetric, nanoscale imaging enables visualization of fine structural details of kidney tissues that were previously difficult or impossible to measure by conventional methodologies.
PMID: 29991751 [PubMed - in process]