Full Text Sources
Podoplanin is a type-I transmembrane sialomucin-like glycoprotein expressed on the surface of several kinds of tumor cells. The podoplanin receptor is a platelet activation receptor known as C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2), which has been identified as a receptor for the platelet-activating snake venom protein rhodocytin. CLEC-2 is highly expressed in platelets and megakaryocytes and expressed at lower levels in liver Kupffer cells. Podoplanin is expressed in certain types of tumor cells, including squamous cell carcinomas, seminomas, and brain tumors. Podoplanin is also expressed in a wide range of normal cells, including fibroblastic reticular cells in lymph nodes, kidney podocytes, and lymphatic endothelial cells, but not vascular endothelial cells. Metastasis of podoplanin-positive lung tumors injected from the tail vein is greatly inhibited in CLEC-2-depleted mice or in anti-podoplanin antibody-treated mice. These findings suggest that the CLEC-2-podoplanin interaction facilitates hematogenous tumor metastasis. Platelets may increase the survival of tumor cells by covering tumor cells and physically protecting them from shear stress or immune cells in the bloodstream. Alternatively, platelets may stimulate the epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells to facilitate their extravasation from blood vessels. Cell proliferation is stimulated in podoplanin-expressing tumor cells by the coculture with platelets, but the effects of the CLEC-2-podoplanin interaction on tumor growth in vivo are not yet resolved. It is possible that the CLEC-2-podoplanin interaction facilitates tumor-related thrombosis, subsequent inflammation, inflammation-induced cachexia, and reduced survival. Considering these findings, anti-podoplanin and anti-CLEC-2 drugs are promising therapies for the prevention of tumor metastasis, progression, and tumor-related symptoms, which may result in longer survival in cancer patients. There are advantages and disadvantages of anti-podoplanin vs. anti-CLEC-2 therapy. Side effects in podoplanin-expressing normal tissues due to treatment with anti-podoplanin and temporal thrombocytopenia due to treatment with anti-CLEC2 are potential problems, although solutions to these problems have been reported.
PMID: 29863945 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]