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Myocarditis is an important but incompletely understood cause of cardiac dysfunction. Children with fulminant myocarditis often require inotropic or mechanical circulatory support, and researchers in some studies suggest that up to 42% of children who die suddenly have evidence of myocarditis. Recurrent myocarditis is extremely rare, and the vast majority of reported cases involve adult patients. Pediatric providers who suspect a recurrence of myocarditis have limited evidence to guide patient management because the literature in this domain is sparse. Here we present a unique, illustrative pediatric case of recurrent myocarditis. A 14-year-old boy presented for the second time in 2 years with a clinical history strongly suggestive of myocarditis. Although myocarditis was suggested in the results of cardiac MRI, no pathogen was identified during his first presentation. During his second episode of myocarditis, parvovirus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction testing of an endomyocardial specimen that also met Dallas criteria for myocarditis. With each presentation, he had decreased ventricular function that subsequently normalized. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of recurrent myocarditis in children in whom the diagnosis was confirmed by using MRI and/or biopsy data. Reviewing this distinctive case and the existing literature may help characterize this entity and raise awareness among care providers.
PMID: 29437909 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]