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A subset of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) respond well to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs), due to the presence of sensitising mutations in the gene encoding EGFR. Mutations associated with resistance to first generation EGFR TKIs have also been identified, which lead to therapeutic failure and the requirement for new drugs. Three generations of EGFR TKIs have been developed and either have been, or are being, evaluated as first and/or second line therapeutic agents. In this review, we consider the advances in molecular diagnostic techniques that are used, or are in development, to facilitate the targeted EGFR TKI therapy of patients with NSCLC. A literature search was conducted in May 2017 using PubMed, and spanning the period September 2005 (EU approval date of erlotinib) to May 2017. Search terms used were: EGFR TKI, NSCLC, clinical trial, erlotinib, gefitinib, afatinib, EGFR mutations, Exon 19 deletion, and Leu858Arg. The use of molecular data, in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic information, will assist physicians to make the best therapeutic choice for each patient with advanced NSCLC. Personalized medicine and a rapidly developing therapy landscape will enable these patients to achieve optimal responses to EGFR TKIs.
PMID: 29270776 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]