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Diabetes is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease, and even in the absence of albuminuria, decreased renal function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients increases the risk for major adverse cardiovascular events and death. The evidence derived from recent studies suggests that intensive glucose control not only reduces the risk for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria but may also decrease the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Although insulin therapy is widely used in patients with T2DM and renal disease, metabolic control is particularly difficult to achieve and manage because of the limited therapeutic options and the frequent comorbidities seen in this population. Recent evidence suggests that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors may offer a better choice for improving glycemic control in T2DM patients with low GFR. This review will focus on vildagliptin, a DPP-4 inhibitor with a large body of evidence in patients with moderate to severe renal failure and a good clinical profile in terms of efficacy and safety. In particular, vildagliptin, with appropriate dose adjustment, provides clinically important reductions in glycated hemoglobin, without increasing weight and the risk of hypoglycemia even in patients with severe chronic kidney disease.
PMID: 28983844 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]