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Saturable pharmacokinetics in the renal excretion of drugs.

著者 van Ginneken CA , Russel FG
Clin Pharmacokinet.1989 Jan ; 16(1):38-54.
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Department of Pharmacology, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

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The renal excretion of drugs is the result of different mechanisms: glomerular filtration, passive back diffusion, tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption. Of these mechanisms the last 2 are saturable, as they involve carrier transport. This also implies that both tubular secretion and tubular reabsorption are susceptible to competition between similar substrates for a common carrier site. Furthermore, transport via these mechanisms is energy-dependent, so-called active transport, able to concentrate a drug. Tubular secretion takes place in the proximal tubule of the nephron. Many organic compounds are actively secreted, but there are separate carrier systems for anions and cations. Anions appear to be transported actively over the basolateral membrane and by a less efficient non-active carrier-mediated process (facilitated diffusion) over the brush border membrane. As a result of these mechanisms, anions tend to accumulate in proximal tubular cells. For cations, however, the active transport step operates over the brush border membrane, whereas the uptake of the cation in the cell occurs via facilitated diffusion over the basolateral membrane. Active reabsorption is most prominent for many nutrients and endogenous substrates (amino acids, glucose, vitamins), but various exogenous compounds also have a certain affinity for the reabsorptive carrier systems. Uricosuric drugs, for instance, interfere with carrier-mediated reabsorption of urate. The occurrence of saturable excretion routes causes dose-dependent, non-linear pharmacokinetics. In clinical pharmacokinetics, tubular secretion can adequately be described with the use of a Michaelis-Menten equation. This implies that a compound undergoing tubular secretion exhibits a concentration-dependent renal clearance. At low plasma concentrations the clearance will be maximal, and for several drugs may be as high as the effective renal plasma flow. Increasing concentrations cause decreasing renal clearance, until eventually the secretion mechanism becomes fully saturated. Then the excretion of the drug in urine will depend primarily on its net rate of filtration. It is important to realise that the non-linear kinetics will be evident from the plasma kinetics only when the saturable pathway contributes to at least some 20% of the total body clearance. Interactions with other substrates, however, are likely to occur even when only a very small amount of drug is transported by the carrier system. Non-linear kinetics inevitably lead to disproportionate accumulation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)
PMID: 2650954 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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